This web site is supported through an educational grant provided by Tempest Technology Corp.

Tempest Technology Corp

This web site is dedicated to providing information and resources about the use of positive pressure on the fireground. As with any fireground operation, Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) and Positive Pressure Attack (PPA) require training and education to be performed safely and effectively.

Since the late 1980s positive pressure methods for structure fires have evolved from using positive pressure after the fire was knocked down (Positive Pressure Ventilation, or PPV) to coordinating positive pressure ventilation with fire attack (Positive Pressure Attack, or PPA). Properly performed PPA can be implemented by a first-arriving engine, and is a safe, effective tactic that can save lives and property and help ensure firefighters go home safely.



Item # 910-053
$44.99 + $5 S&H
Fire Ventilation

Published by the Swedish Rescue Services Agency, Fire Ventilation combines experience from fire and rescue services and research in the form of experiments and theoretical studies on the subject.

Item # 910-010
$149.99 + $5 S&H
Build and Burn Plan Book

Emergency Engineered Solutions is offering an 11x17 book that includes step-by-step instructions, a materials list and diagrams. These plans are for a structure that simulates a simple, 24-foot x 32-foot, single family dwelling.

Item # 795-010
$69.99 + $5 S&H
Positive Pressure Attack for Ventilation and Firefighting

The Book, Positive Pressure Attack for Ventilation and Firefighting, became reality after a six-year effort by Battalion Chiefs Kriss Garcia and Reinhard Kauffmann of the Salt Lake City Fire Department, with Ray Schelble, who was also with the SLCFD.

Pressurized Fire Attack Precaution: THE BIG THREE

Part of the Fire Engineering University Program, “Pressurized Fire Attack Precaution: THE BIG THREE” helps students understand the difference between positive-pressure attack (PPA) and positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). Also covered are fire conditions in which fans should not be used and knowing when interior conditions indicate that PPV could be used.


Item # 910-047
$79.99 +$5 S&H
PPA Training Video, “The Winds Have Changed”

This four-hour introduction to Positive Pressure Attack (PPA) given by Battalion Chiefs (Retired) Kriss Garcia and Reinhard Kauffmann uses live fire scene video, incident case studies and scientific data to walk students through the theories, tactics and applications of Positive Pressure Attack.

Item # 940-048
FREE + $2 S&H

NIST Positive Pressure Ventilation Research: Videos and Reports

This DVD set includes a presentation video that explains Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV), examines the results of the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) PPV research.

This product is currently unavailable.

Item # 910-049
FREE + $2 S&H

Evaluating Fire Fighting Tactics Under Wind Driven Conditions: Reports and Videos Dual DVD Set

Two DVD Set covering NIST's research in the area of wind driven fires, done in collaboration with the Fire Department of New York City, the Chicago Fire Department, and many others.  Includes an 86 minute overview along with hours of the test video.





PPA Online Simulation

This simulation demonstrates the benefits of, and precautions for, employing a positive pressure attack (PPA).

In this scenario, a room and contents fire is progressing through the main floor of a lightweight wood-frame single-family dwelling.  You are the officer on Engine 1 with a crew of three (3). You must demonstrate the use of a Positive Pressure Attack to resolve this incident successfully.


Fighting Cancer on the Fireground, One Department’s Model

With firefighter cancer on the rise and the risks of cancer growing exponentially with today's dynamically toxic environment firefighters need to be more aware and take more precautions in order to remain healthy. Jacksonville Fire Rescue Department has begun an innovative program to try to improve firefighters health and safety by reducing their exposure to toxins on the fireground. Learn what JFRD is doing and what potentially more can be done to lower your risk of cancer from fighting fire.

Top 20 Tactical Considerations from Firefighter Research

Over the past several years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) have been working with the fire service to examine fire dynamics and firefighting tactics. More than a hundred experiments have examined the changes in the fire environment over time, the impact of ventilating ventilation-limited fires, and the implications of flow control and effectiveness in suppression tactics. These experiments were conducted with firefighters from across the country from departments of different types and with varying levels of staffing, resources, and operating procedures. The NIST and UL studies have produced tactical considerations that have become common themes over several studies; they may change the way you view your standard operating guidelines.


Effectiveness of Fire Service Vertical Ventilation and Suppresion Tactics in Single Family Homes

Under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program - Fire Prevention and Safety Grants, UL is examining the impact of vertical ventilation (through the roof), both naturally induced and as a firefighting tactic, on fire growth behavior in residential structures. This two year project will develop empirical data on vertical ventilation techniques that is needed to quantify the fire behavior associated with these scenarios and result in immediately developing the necessary firefighting ventilation practices to reduce firefighter death and injury. Suppression techniques used to fight these modern fire conditions will also be examined to assess their impact on occupant survivability. This fire research project will further work from previously DHS AFG sponsored research (EMW-2008-FP-01774) which studied the impact of horizontal ventilation through doors and windows. Additionally, this fire research project will address questions of smoke alarm response associated with different smoke alarm technologies and alarm location to support fire department smoke alarm distribution programs including those sponsored by DHS Fire Prevention and Safety Grant program.

UL University: Impact of Ventilation on Fire Behavior in Legacy and Contemporary Residential Construction

This training program provides students with an enhanced understanding of ventilation in residential structures.  It quantifies the influence of ventilation tactics on fire behavior in a modern residential structure as compared to a legacy residential structure. 

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